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Definition and Types of Pollution - A Global Alarm

Definition and Types of Pollution - A Global Alarm

“Pollution” is a sad truth of our planet. We as a human are running for development (Construction, Manufacturing, Mining and Transportation) for our society but we even didn’t think that how much we are playing with our nature or environment. Factory emission, cutting trees, waste materials dumping in sea, vehicles emission, use of plastics, etc. these are some common factors which affect our environment. Our planet and almost all animals and plants living on it are struggling with man-made pollution.

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“Any substances which negatively impact or dangerous for our environment called Pollution”. That substance has harmful and poisonous effect. In very simple way, anything which makes our environment dirty called pollution.

Environment Pollution is the biggest challenge of the world today. Every country and every human is directly affect with pollution and even every human being contributes their bit towards pollution. Now days we are not getting pure oxygen, not pure vegetables and not pure water. Everything is polluted either by the human or by the nature itself.

There are five major types of pollution:-

Air Pollution: A major source of Air Pollution from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gases and gasoline to produce electricity and power of vehicle. Vehicle and factory emissions are common sources of this type of air pollution. Polluted air is very dangerous for every living thing. It can make people’s eye burn and difficulty in breathing. Air pollution contributes to respiratory problems such as asthma, lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and other lung ailments. In 1984 at Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India released a deadly gas in to the air. At least 8000 people died within a day and hundreds of thousands more were permanently injured.

Ammonia Gas also air pollutant gas that comes from agriculture activity. Nitrogen, Sulphur Dioxide and Carbon Mono Oxide in the air contributes to Acid Rain which is very harmful for forest, crops, species that live in water bodies and it degrades outdoor statues, monuments and buildings also.

Water Pollution: Although around 2/3 part of earth is covered by water but still there is no drinkable water in many countries. This is a global problem and water pollution is also one of the most serious environmental problems. Water pollution is caused by a variety of human activities like industrial waste and agriculture waste. Water pollution happens when dangerous chemicals and harmful foreign substances are introduced to water. It includes chemical, sewage, pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture runoff or metals like lead or mercury.

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According to United Nation, around 783 million people do not have access of clean water and around 4000 children die every day from drinking dirty water.

According to a study, in developing countries around 70% of solid waste is directly dumped in sea.

There are lots of countries over the globe those who have poor sewage system and poor sewage treatment plants. In India specially in Delhi, more than half of the sewage and other waste produced in the city are dumped in to the Yamuna River. And now Yamuna River water is not drinkable. It is very common to see plastic bags, plastic bottles, food waste and etc. at sea beaches. The trash is a threat to fish and seabirds, which mistake the plastic for food. Many of the plastics are covered with chemical pollutants.

Land / Soil Pollution: If there is water pollution, Land or Soil also be affected. Land can become polluted by household garbage. Land / Soil can become polluted by industrial sources also where the toxic chemical is not dispose properly. Overuse of pesticides / herbicides are also very harmful for land.  Irresponsibly exploit minerals through mining is also a kind of Land pollution. Rain and flooding can bring pollutants from other already polluted lands to soil at other locations.

There is a very huge and big garbage mountain In Delhi, capital of India which is very dangerous and harmful for human and plants.

Light Pollution: Excessive use of artificial light at night is called Light Pollution. Light Pollution cause health problem, disrupt natural cycles and affecting wildlife activities. Light pollution can disrupt ecosystems by confusing the distinction between night and day. Sources of light pollution include electronic billboards, night sports grounds, street and car lights, city parks, public places, airports, and residential areas.  Feeding and sleep patterns may be confused in some birds and animal. Light pollution also indicates an excess use of energy. Light pollution also makes it difficult for astronomers, both professional and amateur, to properly see the stars.

Noise / Sound Pollution: Noise pollution typically refers to human-made noises that are either very loud or disruptive in manner. This would be vehicle horn, loud speaker noise, stone cutting & crushing noise, steel forgings, movement of heavy vehicle, etc. It leads to irritation, high blood pressure, loss of temper, decrease of concentration and sometime loss of hearing. Under water noise pollution also impact to water creatures.

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The main reason for environment pollution is human activities so it’s our responsibility to reduce pollution as its destroying our environment. Day by day world population is increasing and as a result pollution is also increasing. This is not an individual’s responsibility, we all should do collective efforts to save our environment otherwise our new generation will not be able to survive. There is no purity in Air, Food and Water. It causes many diseases and Cancers in human and wildlife. Protecting the environment is a long and continuous process. It requires short and long term planning, government policies, public and industrial participation.

There are some actions which we can take in our routine life so that we can contribute our bit towards safe environment. These are Say ‘No’ to plastics, Use recycle products, Save Trees, Save Water, Banning Dangerous Agriculture Products, Don’t horn unnecessary, by decreasing waste, etc.

Some Interesting Facts

  • Antarctica is the cleanest place on Earth protected by anti-pollution laws.

  • Americans make up about 5% of the world population but produce as much 30% of the world’s waste and use about a 25% of the world’s natural resources.

  • In America, alone 3 million plastic bottles are thrown away every hour. However, it takes up to 500 years for the plastic bottle to decompose.

  • China is among the countries with highest air pollution in the world.

  • About half of the Chinese populations have to drink contaminated water.

  • Pollution in China can change the weather in the United States. Almost a third of air pollution in San Francisco actually comes from China.

  • Almost 80% of all urban waste is dumped in to the river Ganga in India which is most holy river of Hindus.

  • Around 1000 children die in India every year due to diseases caused by the polluted water.

  • More than 50 million tons of electronics waste has been produced.

  • Over 1 million seabirds and 100,000 sea mammals are killed by pollution every year.

  • A single car generates half a ton of CO2 and a NASA space shuttle releases 28 tons of C02.

  • Thousands of marine animals including fish, turtle, dolphins etc. die after swallowing plastic bags that resemble jellyfish.

  • About a third of fish in British rivers are in the process of changing sex due to water pollution. Harmons in human sewage including those in contraceptive pills, are thought to be the main cause.

Pollution is not a personal problem; this is a social issue which need to be control otherwise the future is in dark. We have seen now the pollution is spreading, no one is bothered about it. We all should take personal initiative to control pollution. We need to start from our self then only our next one understands. These kinds of initiative should be like a revolution, we should all unite against pollution.

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